Stroke or cerebral vascular accidents are among the leading causes of death in the world. With the availability
of Digital Subtraction Angiography, transluminal angioplasty has become feasible in many situations and the role of intracranial
stents is becoming ever more important in the management of cerebral vascular diseases. In current review, we
outline the chronological development of various stents namely; balloon expandable stent, self-expandable open cell stent,
self-expandable close cell stent and the flow diverting stent. Further we discuss their advantages and limitations in terms
of stent migration, thromboemboli, damage to vessels during procedure, in-stent stenosis and hyper-perfusion damage. We
also discuss the importance of in-situ endothelialization, controlled expandability and hemodynamic manipulation in stent
design. Further, we summarized the role and need for further development in the areas of bio-compatible materials, endothelial
progenitor cell capture technique, bio-functionalized-magnetic-nano-particles and nanotechnology which are significant
in intracranial stent development.
Keywords: Bio-functionalized material, endothelial progenitor cell capturing, hyper-perfusion damage, in-situ endothelialization,
in-stent stenosis, intracranial stent, nanocomposite, nanotechnology, POSS-nanocomposite.
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