Objective: The real benefit of follow-up cervical cytology in women treated for gynecological cancer is unclear.
This study was designed to assess the rate of success of cytological examinations in the detection of early vaginal
recurrence of gynecological cancer in women found by other methods to have vaginal recurrence of cervical and endometrial
cancer. Data Sources: Records of cytological examinations. Study Selection: Thirty-three women treated for early
and invasive cervical and endometrial cancer with recurrence in the vaginal vault were retrospectively analyzed. Data Extraction:
Records from 1979 to 2010. Data Synthesis: Sixteen women (48.5%) had symptomatic vaginal recurrence associated
with distant metastases, whereas 17 (51.5%) had vaginal recurrence only. Cytology was negative in 12 women
(36.4%) with both symptomatic and asymptomatic recurrence and positive in the other 21 (63.6%). In 9 of these 21
women (42.9%), the disease was limited to the vaginal vault, whereas the remaining 12 (57.1%) presented with vaginal
lesions associated with distant metastases. Cytology was positive in 9 of the 17 (52.9%) women whose recurrence was
limited to the vaginal vault and negative in 8 (47.1%). Conclusion: Vaginal cytology yielded false-negative results in almost
half of the women with vaginal recurrence of gynecological cancer. Patents of methods used for early diagnosis and
detection of immortalization of cervical cancer are also reviewed in this article.
Keywords: Cancer screening tests, cervical cancer, endometrium, metastasis, PAP smear, vagina.
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