Background: The management and treatment of ligamentous injuries within an orthopaedic
population has continued to evolve throughout the last several decades. Limitations with autograft, allograft
and synthetics have led to research into tissue engineering using scaffolds and mesenchymal stem cells.
Objectives: This systematic review aims to examine and summarise the pre clinical in-vivo studies and limited clinical
studies on the use of scaffolds in the treatment of ligamentous injuries Data sources: Databases: PubMed, CINAHL, Web
of science, Medline, Cochrane library and Embase. The following key words and search terms were used: scaffolds, ligament,
mesenchymal stem cells, tissue engineering, clinical, and preclinical. Methods: A total of 118 articles were reviewed.
19 articles were identified as relevant for the purpose of this systematic literature review. An additional 2 articles
were sourced from the reference list of reviewed articles. Results: Three tables of studies were constructed: pre clinical
biological scaffolds, pre clinical synthetic scaffolds and clinical scaffolds. Conclusions: There is a large body of pre clinical
evidence that the use of scaffolds combined with mesenchymal stem cells can be a viable option in the regeneration of
ligamentous structures with biological and mechanical properties suitable for function. There is, however, limited clinical
evidence supporting the use of recently developed scaffolds and historical evidence of synthetic scaffolds failing in the
management of anterior cruciate ligament repairs. There appears to be no consensus in the literature as to the nature of the
scaffold material that is most suitable for clinical trials. No randomised control trials have yet been conducted.