Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of illness and death. The worldwide epidemic of HIV/AIDS
and emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant TB, are exacerbating this global public
health issue. In this situation, several innovative approaches are being pursued to further improve the existing
measures, as well as to identify new one. Recently, stem cell transplantation has emerged as a novel
therapeutic option which holds promises for the treatment of many non-infectious and infectious diseases.
Recent advances and experimental studies attracted the interest of researchers for exploring the stem cellbased
treatment as a candidate treatment option for drug resistant tuberculosis. To date little has been
published concerning the short and long term therapeutic effect of any type of stem cells in patients suffering
from drug resistant tuberculosis. The purpose of this review is to present the viewpoints on current status and
future prospect of this novel treatment approach in severe form of TB and also to discuss the opportunities
and challenges associated with this approach.
Keywords: Extensively drug resistant tuberculosis, multidrug resistant tuberculosis, mesenchymal stem
cells, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, stem cells, tuberculosis.
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