Despite optimal pharmacologic treatment, smoking cessation and pulmonary rehabilitation, patients with severe
COPD remain significantly disabled with impaired quality of life. Lung volume reduction surgery has been an alternative
intervention to the treatment of selected end stage cases offering improved quality of life. However, its increased early
mortality, risks and patient burden led to the development of new therapeutic modalities. Over the last years,
interventional bronchoscopies have made considerable progress in the minimal invasive treatment of emphysema with the
application of endobronchial valves and endobronchial recoils. In this paper we will review the clinical outcomes,
benefits, risks and complications of these two modalities.