This review is the first attempt to collect papers about possible use of ionic liquids for the chemical processing
of oleochemical raw materials. The main focus is put on the processes based on vegetable oils, due to the fact that the majority
of published reports in this area were dedicated to the synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, biodiesel),
which are originated mainly from vegetable oils. A significant amount of reports, including several review papers, were
dedicated to the use of ionic liquids in the synthesis of biodiesel, but also other processes such as the synthesis of fatty
acid esters or reactions with the use of unsaturated bonds still remain underrated. However, it is important enough to justify
their collection in one paper in order to adequately appreciate the potential use of ionic liquids and benefits resulting
from the chemistry of vegetable raw materials.