Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by damage of motoneurons leading
to paralysis state and long term disability. Riluzole is currently the only FDA-approved drug for the treatment of ALS.
The proposed mechanisms of ALS include glutamate excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, protein
aggregation, SOD1 accumulations, and neuronal death. In this review, we discuss potential biomarkers for the identification
of patients with ALS. We further emphasize potential therapy involving the uses of neurotrophic factors such as IGFI,
GDNF, VEGF, ADNF-9, colivelin and angiogenin in the treatment of ALS. Moreover, we described several existing
drugs such as talampanel, ceftriaxone, pramipexole, dexpramipexole and arimoclomol potential compounds for the treatment
of ALS. Interestingly, the uses of stem cell therapy and immunotherapy are promising for the treatment of ALS.