Ocular Telescopic Devices
Pp. 281-309 (29)
Eli Rosen, Ehud I. Assia and Guy Kleinmann
Magnifying devices for patients with macular diseases have existed for about
70 years. The development of various devices over the years is related to the evolving
understanding of the physiology and optical parameters of the eye, the devices and the
relationship between the devices and the eye.
In the last decade, we have witnessed a tremendous development in the field of
intraocular telescopic devices. These telescopes use the optical and physiologic
advantages of their intraocular location, and resolve many of the disadvantages of
external or combined telescopic devices.
Although most studies are ongoing, the Implantable Miniature Telescope (IMT) is the
first and currently the only FDA approved device. The IMT is also the only device
known to have been studied in a large, controlled, clinical trial. Other devices, such as
the Lipshitz Macular Implant (LMI) and the IOL-Vip have been studied in small series
of patients only. All devices resulted in improved visual acuity in implanted patients,
but a correlation to improved quality of life was not apparent. Unfortunately, there are
no uniform, comparable, clinical parameters among these studies.
Intraocular telescope implantation is challenging from the aspects of surgical technique
and visual rehabilitation. A low complication rate (such as endothelial cell loss) and a
programmed rehabilitation process are crucial for obtaining best results from an
In this chapter we describe the optical and physiological aspects of low vision aids. We
present the historical background and the technological progress, including recent
clinical trials, emphasizing the current evaluations of intraocular magnifying devices.
Intraocular telescope, low vision, macular scar, end stage age related
macular degeneration, Miniature telescope, treatment, visual rehabilitation.
Ophthalmology Department Kaplan Medical Center, POB 1, Rehovot, 76100, Israel.