Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is accompanied by dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and this is
characterized by alterations in its composition and structure compared with HDL from normal subjects (N-HDL). HDL
from diabetic subjects (D-HDL) has a diminished endothelial protective capacity including reducted ability to exert antioxidative
activity, stimulate endothelial cell (EC) production of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-dependent
vasomotion, promote endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-mediated endothelial repair. In addition, D-HDL promotes EC
proliferation, migration and adhesion to the matrix. The present review provides an overview of these effects of diabetic
HDL on EC function, as well as the possible changes of D-HDL structure and composition which may be responsible for
the diminished endothelial protective capacity of D-HDL.