Calcium channel blockers are one of the most useful antihypertensive agents because of their definite blood
pressure lowering action. Although the antihypertensive effect of calcium channel blockers is attributed predominantly to
the blockade of L-type calcium channels, recent studies demonstrate that the blockade of other subtypes of calcium
channels, including T-type and N-type calcium channels, offers renal protective action because of their beneficial action
on glomerular capillary pressure, renal fibrotic process, sympathetic nerve activity and aldosterone synthesis. It requires
more extensive studies to clarify whether the ostensibly beneficial actions of these calcium channel blockers are available
in a clinical setting.