Pp. 48-81 (34)
Negotiation is a process of opportunistic interaction by which
two or more parties seek a solution for a divergence of interests through
jointly decided action. Traditional negotiation, conducted face-to-face and
via telephone or mail, is a critically important activity in all realms of
human interaction and often proceeds through several distinct phases or
stages—notably a beginning or initiation phase, a middle or problem-solving
phase, and an ending or resolution phase. Automated negotiation, conducted
autonomously by software agents representing individuals or organizations,
is an active area of research in artificial intelligence and computer science
generally. Increasingly, automated negotiation systems help in achieving
efficient agreements—examples, to mention a few, include the business trend
toward agent-based supply chain management, the pivotal role that electronic
commerce is increasingly assuming in many organizations, and the industrial
trend toward virtual enterprises. This chapter discusses and analyses some of
the key negotiation techniques for software agents, placing emphasis on both
the early stages of negotiation and the process of moving toward agreement.
Intelligent software agents, Multi-agent systems, Automated
negotiation, Pre-negotiation, Bargaining, Protocols, Strategies, Preferences,
Negotiation Frameworks, Negotiation Systems.
LNEG-National Research Institute, UAER, Edifıcio C, Estrada do Pacodo Lumiar 22, 1649-038 Lisbon, Portugal.