In 2006, Takahashi and Yamanaka first established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPScs). Since then, numerous
improvements have been made in the fields of stem cell research, drug research, modelling of diseases, and the treatment
of degenerative diseases. Recently, there has been increasing research involving small molecules for evaluating the
efficiency of iPSc generation and reducing the risks of heredity as well as oncogenous problems. However, the molecular
mechanisms of iPScs remain to be further explored, to meet the demands of practical applications. With a better understanding
of degenerative diseases, more complex treatment strategies for novel regenerative medicine are anticipated, and
iPSc technology offers an available pathway. This review focuses on the development and application of iPScs.