Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Advances and Surgical Applications
Pp. 250-276 (27)
Maria-Angeles Aller, Maria-Paz de Miguel, Carlos Jiménez, Sherezade Fuentes-Julián, Alejandro Manrique, Alejandro Blázquez-Martínez, Jorge Calvo, Cristina Pascual, Francisco Arnalich-Montiel and Jaime Arias
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used in regenerative medicine mainly
based on their capacity to differentiate into specific cell types and also as bioreactors of
soluble factors that will promote tissue regeneration from the damaged tissue cellular
progenitors. Moreover, MSCs can stop a variety of immune cell functions: cytokine
secretion and cytotoxicity of T and NK cells; B cell maturation and antibody secretion;
DC maturation and activation; as well as antigen presentation. In this scenario, an
inflammatory environment seems to be necessary to promote their effect. Preclinical
studies have been conducted in rodents, rabbits and baboon monkeys among others for
bone marrow, skin, heart, and corneal transplantation, graft-vs.-host disease, hepatic and
renal failure, lung injury, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes and lupus
diseases. Preliminary results from some of these studies have led to human clinical
trials; prevention of allograft rejection and enhancement of the survival of bone marrow
and kidney grafts.
Mesenchymal stem cells, regenerative medicine, immunosuppression,
anti-inflammation, autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases, organ transplanttation,
graft vs. host disease, liver fibrosis, experimental microsurgical cholestasis.
Cátedra de Cirugía, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, Pza. de Ramón y Cajal s.n., 28040 MADRID, Spain.