Astrocytic Target Mechanisms in Epilepsy

Author(s): L. Heja

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 21 , Issue 6 , 2014

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Although glial proliferation of the epileptic loci is recognized for more than a century in certain focal epilepsies, the role of astrocytes in epileptic conditions is receiving significant attention only in recent years. The present review will highlight current knowledge about the various ways astrocytes control neuronal excitability and contribute to genesis, maintenance and suppression of seizures. Besides the widely recognized astrocytic tasks like glutamate clearance, the role of gliotransmission, glutamate, GABA and ATP release as well as gap junctional communication will also be discussed along with the contribution of blood-brain barrier dysfunction, inflammatory pathways and alterations in mircoRNA expression profile to epilepsy. The mechanisms described will help to understand the astrocytic mechanisms contributing to the antiepileptic effect of existing anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) and current therapeutic strategies and also signifies the potential of specific astrocyte-based AED development.

Keywords: Astrocytes, blood-brain barrier, epilepsy, gap junctions, gliotransmission, inflammation.

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Article Details

Year: 2014
Page: [755 - 763]
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.2174/0929867320666131119160445
Price: $65

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