Many molecular imaging probes have been developed in recent years that hold great promise for
both diagnostic and therapeutic functions in urogynecologic disease. Historically, optical probe designs were
based on either endogenous or exogenous fluorophores. More recently, organic fluorophore probes have been
engineered to target specific tissues and emit fluorescence only upon binding to targets. Several different
photochemical mechanisms of activation exist. This review presents a discussion of the history and
development of molecular imaging probe designs and provides an overview of successful preclinical and
clinical models employing molecular probes for in vivo imaging of urogynecologic cancers.
Keywords: Gynecologic cancer, molecular imaging, near infrared, urologic cancer.
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