The inflammatory response in patients with inflammatory bowel disease is a complex self-amplifying process
with multiple cellular and molecular pathways controlling activation and shut-off of the process. Available therapeutic interventions
with drugs that have a very selective action, such as anti-tumor necrosis factor antibodies, or broader effects
such as corticosteroids still leave a significant proportion of patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis insufficiently
treated. Cellular therapies are emerging as promising new approaches to treat inflammatory bowel diseases and in
particular Crohn’s disease.
Experimental and clinical data are the origin of the increasing utilization of cell therapies for severe immune-mediated
diseases including inflammatory bowel disease. The types of cell therapies for these diseases can be divided into two different
areas: hematopoietic stem cell therapies, and selected/conditioned immune cell therapy, the latter including mesenchymal
stem cells and T-regulatory cells-based therapies.
Keywords: Bone marrow transplantation, Crohn’s disease, cell therapy, haematopoietic stem cells, inflammatory bowel disease,
mesenchymal stem cells, Treg cells, ulcerative colitis.
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