ISSN (Print): 2213-8099
ISSN (Online): 2213-8102
Volume 7, 2 Issues, 2020
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ISSN (Print): 2213-8099
ISSN (Online): 2213-8102
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1 Articles Ahead of Print are available electronically
The burdens of healthcare, for example, incurable and inadequately-treated diseases, antiquated patient
care systems, and exorbitant treatment costs for patients, families and insurance companies, are a global
problem. New innovations, landmark treatments and creative solutions to the global healthcare system are
desperately needed – and these exciting breakthroughs are likely to come from all corners of the globe.
This thematic issue of Technology Transfer and Entrepreneurship is exclusively focused on the thriving
biotechnology, pharmaceutical and biomedical science communities in Poland, and as you will read in this
issue, Poland is well positioned to help lead this change.
The innovative biotech and pharmaceutical sectors have been growing organically during the last
decade in Poland. This growth has been mainly driven by visionary and entrepreneurial leaders who
successfully engaged local scientific talent pools. In fact, one of the key foundations of innovative biotech
companies in Poland is access to talented and well-educated scientists who either graduated from top local
universities or returned to the country after having accumulated significant post-doctoral experience
abroad. Admittedly, however, the pool of experienced pharma leaders and drug hunters is still relatively
limited in Poland, but this creates an area of opportunity that could attract more international talent in near
Next to that, public funding for the innovative biotech sector has been growing quite substantially over
the recent years, which has also been coupled with investments in the development of research
infrastructure (incubators) established by the strongest academic centers. This, in partnership with
technology transfer activities, has enabled a number of startup companies and allowed lifting some of their
initial projects of the ground. While public funding has been very helpful, it still does not have the desired
flexibility necessary in biotech, which may positively impact on project development timelines.
Furthermore, this source of funding has become increasingly competitive and the research infrastructure is
becoming more difficult to access, owing to the rapid growth of the sector. This is where more private
funding could become opportune. Leading investors in Poland, with a few exceptions, are typically not
enticed to fund high-risk/high-reward biotech drug discovery business and prefer seemingly more tangible
areas, which have already enjoyed commercial successes (e.g. med-tech, devices). Again, this is beginning
to change, but better understanding and awareness of investment opportunities in the biotech sector are
still needed. Finally, it seems that the Polish biotech ecosystem is mature enough to attract more
international venture capital from well-established European, U.S. or Asian markets. In any case,
emerging signs of commercial success generated by Polish biotech will certainly help to turn around both
the internal and external investor base, such that this sector will flourish even more in the next few years.
The present thematic issue covers a range of perspectives and case studies contributed by some key
stakeholders of the Polish biotech scene. The readers can find insightful personal perspectives and case
studies describing the emergence and development of leading biotech companies currently operating in the
innovative drug discovery and development sector. Further, there are interesting views and metrics
pertaining to technology transfer from academia and intellectual property aspects. Finally, this thematic
issue offers a very comprehensive and data-rich historical overview of the Polish biotech industry,
followed by clear recommendations and future perspectives [1-8].
We believe that collectively these articles will be interesting to a broader international audience, and
help with better understanding of challenges and opportunities in this rapidly growing sector.
The research on entrepreneurial ecosystem proposes distinctive perspectives. According with Isenberg
(2011), firstly, the explicit focus is on entrepreneurial activity and especially on high growth firms. Second,
the emphasis is on local and regional environments and the conditions required generating and supporting
ambitious entrepreneurship. Third, it emphasizes the interactions between framework conditions and
local/regional geographical environments.
These several perspectives allows the inclusion of different topics, such as, ‘regional development and
smart cities’, ‘innovation’, ‘cluster policies’, ‘technology transfer’, ‘business incubators’, ‘entrepreneurial
universities’, ‘triple helix’, ‘academic spin-offs’, ‘creative territories’, ‘digital ecosystems’, etc.
The debate around the topic ‘entrepreneurial ecosystems’ is on agenda, some questions asking for an
Is an entrepreneurial ecosystem born or made?
Which indicators are suitable to measure entrepreneurial ecosystems?
It’s possible (or not) identify types or archetypes of Entrepreneurial ecosystems?
Which public policies could approach for develop entrepreneurial ecosystems?
What are the modifications or adaptations needed in the learning and training strategies for future
managers in entrepreneurial ecosystems?
Several researchers worldwide have been studying the subject of the entrepreneurship and contributions
are multidisciplinary and diverse, as well as their topics of interest.
The Special Issue Entrepreneurial ecosystems aims to create a space for reflection and discussion on
topics of entrepreneurship and ecosystems in a regional context considering its impact on the
development of territories and on innovation and technology transfer. Various approaches to the subject
will be presented allowing the discussion of papers that propose innovative solutions, strategies and
promote sustainable development and competitiveness of the territories.
The research on entrepreneurial ecosystem proposes distinctive perspectives. According to Isenberg
(2011), firstly, the explicit focus is on entrepreneurial activity and especially on high growth firms.
Secondly, the emphasis is on local and regional environments and the conditions required generating and
supporting entrepreneurship. Thirdly, it emphasizes the interactions between framework conditions and
local/regional geographical environments.
With five articles, in this special issue, we seek to bring these contexts, analyzing diverse approaches
on entrepreneurial ecosystems within specific activities (agrifood and crafts sector), spaces within
companies and the importance of higher education institutions in this development.
First, the emphasis is on local and regional environments and on the conditions needed to generate and
support entrepreneurship. Thus, Carvalho presents the state of the art on Entrepreneurship and Regional
Development, seeking to resume the state of the field and open paths for future research and also present
some clues to guide research in this field.
Secondly, Seoanea and Villares bring the context of dimensions that relate to the professional
performance of 100 best companies to work in Spain. Albuquerquea and Amaro da Luz present an
example of a regional innovation ecosystem in Portugal associated with a global and synergistic
intervention in the field of active and healthy aging and reflect on the critical elements of model
Third, Albuquerquea and Amaro da Luz present an example of a regional innovation ecosystem in
Portugal associated with a global and synergistic intervention in the field of active and healthy aging and
reflect on the critical elements of model replication.
Then, we have one paper in the context of entrepreneurial activities of innovation in organizations.
Sarmentoa et al. bring the issue of product innovation in the craft sector, showing ways to foster product
innovation in this area and investigating the barriers and problems faced by artisans.
And then we emphasize the interactions between framing conditions and local/regional geographic
environments, but more specifically with higher education institutions. In the article "A model of
entrepreneurial intention in Mexican university students", Ríos-Manríqueza, Pérez-Rendónb and
González-Martínez present an entrepreneurial intention model of Mexican university students. Four
independent variables are considered: Personal and social resources, resources innovations, performance
features and creativity. The results indicate that the four variables proposed in the model are relevant.
Entrepreneurial ecosystems involve organizations (or specific sectors), people, locations, educational
institutions among other possibilities. We seek to bring in this Special Issue the various possibilities and
search for the social, economic and human development of the entrepreneurial ecosystems.
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