Reduced function of the thyroid gland causes Hypothyroidism which is further attributed to defects in the secretion of thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and tetra-iodothyronine or thyroxine (T4). T3 and T4 hormones are not only known to regulate the rate of metabolism but also affect the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body such as neuromuscular, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism patient usually show higher levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), triglycerides, and other lipid molecules associated with heart disease. The question still remained to be addressed though is whether hypothyroidism affects heart and result in cardiovascular disease. The current review updates us with the recent progress in the hypothyroidism area especially in relation to its connecting link with the heart disease. The present study will further enhance our understanding of the intricacies involved in the secretion of thyroid hormones (T3 & T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) subsequently affecting serum lipid levels. The study may help to dice-out cardiovascular risk factors associated with hypothyroidism so that effective measures could be taken prior to occurrence of coronary heart disease.
Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, drugs, hypothyroidism, lipids, metals, thyroid hormones.
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