Vitamins in the Therapy of Inflammatory and Oxidative Diseases
Pp. 240-264 (25)
Neena Philips, Mathew Samuel, Harit Parakandi, Halyna Siomyk, Michael Re, Sesha Gopal, Hui Jia and Hossam Shahin
The pathophysiology of several diseases, including allergy and asthma, is
linked to increased reactive oxygen or nitrogen species and inflammatory cytokines.
These oxidative and inflammatory mediators in turn alter the organization and
functioning of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Hence anti-oxidative and antiinflammatory
vitamins may alleviate the pathology.
The etiological factors that produce inflammation and oxidative stress are intrinsic and
environmental. The inflammatory and oxidative process consists of the breakdown of
membrane lipids to generate important inflammatory mediators (prostaglandins, platelet
activating factor) that activate immune cells, degranulate eosinophils, and mediate
vascular alterations. The vascular changes are also from tissue damage, which induces
plasma mediators by the kinin, fibrinolytic, and clotting pathways. The activated
immune cells secrete three predominant inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Collectively, the lipid
mediators, plasma mediators and inflammatory cytokines facilitate infiltration of
immune cells into tissue, their activation and respiratory burst to release reactive
oxygen and nitrogen species: all of which cause breakdown of the structural
extracellular matrix proteins, including collagen and elastin, and the stimulation of
proteolytic enzymes such as elastases and collagenases. In addition, these mediators
activate the inflammatory transcription factor NF-kB to act at the gene level.
Vitamins, such as ascorbate, lutein, and nicotinamide, exhibit anti-inflammatory and
anti-oxidative properties and effects. Ascorbate is a potent antioxidant physiologically
via the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species and lipid
hydro peroxides. Ascorbate also regenerates other cellular antioxidants such as vitamin
E, glutathione (GSH) and beta-carotene from their radical species. Lutein (a nonvitamin
A carotenoid) accumulates in the macula of the eye, where it prevents macular
degeneration through the scavenging of ROS. Nicotinamide inhibits inflammatory
cytokines and plasma mediators, and in addition generates nicotinamide adenine
dinucleotide for energy production. In addition, research in our laboratory suggests
beneficial regulation of the ECM by these vitamins.
Ascorbate, lutein, and nicotinamide as supplements in the therapy of allergy or allergy
may be beneficial in the prevention of the fragmentation of the collagen/elastin
network, edema, vascular alterations, and inflammation in the lungs and skin.
Inflammation, collagen, elastin, matrixmetalloproteinases, signaltransduction,
nicotinamide, lutein, ascorbate, skin, lung.
Fairleigh Dickinson University, Teaneck, NJ 07666, USA.