Neurochemicals Involved in Medullary Control of Common Carotid Blood Flow

Author(s): Chi-Li Gong, Yuk-Man Leung, Ming-Ren Wang, Nai-Nu Lin, Tony Jer-Fu Lee, Jon-Son Kuo

Journal Name: Current Neuropharmacology

Volume 11 , Issue 5 , 2013

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The common carotid artery (CCA) supplies intra- and extra-cranial vascular beds. An area in the medulla controlling CCA blood flow is defined as the dorsal facial area (DFA) by Kuo et al. in 1987. In the DFA, presynaptic nitrergic and/or glutamatergic fibers innervate preganglionic nitrergic and/or cholinergic neurons which give rise to the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic 7th and 9th cranial nerves. Released glutamate from presynaptic nitrergic and/or glutamatergic fibers can activate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4- propionic acid (AMPA) receptors on preganglionic nitrergic and/or cholinergic neurons. By modulating this glutamate release, several neurochemicals including serotonin, arginine, nitric oxide, nicotine, choline and ATP in the DFA regulate CCA blood flow. Understanding the neurochemical regulatory mechanisms can provide important insights of the physiological roles of the DFA, and may help develop therapeutic strategies for diseases involving CCA blood flow, such as migraine, hypertensive disease, Alzheimer’s disease and cerebral ischemic stroke.

Keywords: Carotid artery, Cerebral blood flow, Medulla, Parasympathetic nucleus, Vascular regulation, Neurotransmitter

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Article Details

Year: 2013
Published on: 31 July, 2013
Page: [513 - 520]
Pages: 8
DOI: 10.2174/1570159X113119990044
Price: $65

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