Frontiers in Drug Discovery

Frontiers in Drug Discovery

Volume: 1

Erythropoietic Stimulating Agents

Indexed in: EBSCO.

The development of new erythropoietic stimulating agents (ESAs) has significantly increased in recent years. Researchers are focused on different and interesting concepts, namely, methods to increase ...
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Therapeutic Effects of Pyroglutamate Helix B Surface Peptide (pHBSP) in Disease

Pp. 125-143 (19)

Kiran K. Nandra, Nimesh S.A. Patel and Christoph Thiemermann


Pyroglutamate helix B surface peptide (pHBSP) is an 11 amino acid peptide based on the tertiary structure of erythropoietin (EPO). EPO is released from the kidney and its primary function is to control the production of erythrocytes in response to hypoxia. More recently, EPO has been found to possess many pleiotropic actions, in particular its ability to protect tissues against injurious stimuli. However, its use in patients is associated with an increased risk of thrombotic events due to the stimulation of erythropoiesis, this has led to the development of multiple EPO analogues including pHBSP. pHBSP has demonstrated its tissue-protective capability in many pre-clinical studies, with effects comparable to those of EPO. pHBSP is proposed to act via a receptor structurally distinct to the classical EPO receptor homodimer; the β-common receptor (βcR), therefore it does not induce erythropoiesis. pHBSP is a novel and attractive therapeutic intervention for the treatment of many disease states including acute kidney injury, stroke and myocardial infarction, however there are currently no clinical studies using this peptide.


Pyroglutamate helix B surface peptide, erythropoietin, tissue-protection, apoptosis, inflammation, β-common receptor.


Centre for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, The William Harvey Research Institute, John Vane Science Centre, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK.