Tripeptide Amide L-pyroglutamyl-Histidyl-L-Prolineamide (L-PHPThyrotropin- Releasing Hormone, TRH) Promotes Insulin-Producing Cell Proliferation

Author(s): LuGuang Luo, John ZQ Luo, Ivor Jackson

Journal Name: Current Aging Science

Volume 6 , Issue 1 , 2013

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A very small tripeptide amide L-pyroglutamyl-L-histidyl-L-prolineamide (L-PHP, Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone, TRH), was first identified in the brain hypothalamus area. Further studies found that L-PHP was expressed in pancreas. The biological role of pancreatic L-PHP is still not clear. Growing evidence indicates that L-PHP expression in the pancreas may play a pivotal role for pancreatic development in the early prenatal period. However, the role of L-PHP in adult pancreas still needs to be explored. L-PHP activation of pancreatic β cell Ca2+ flow and stimulation of β-cell insulin synthesis and release suggest that L-PHP involved in glucose metabolism may directly act on the β cell separate from any effects via the central nervous system (CNS). Knockout L-PHP animal models have shown that loss of L-PHP expression causes hyperglycemia, which cannot be reversed by administration of thyroid hormone, suggesting that the absence of L-PHP itself is the cause. L-PHP receptor type-1 has been identified in pancreas which provides a possibility for L-PHP autocrine and paracrine regulation in pancreatic function. During pancreatic damage in adult pancreas, L-PHP may protect beta cell from apoptosis and initiate its regeneration through signal pathways of growth hormone in β cells. L-PHP has recently been discovered to affect a broad array of gene expression in the pancreas including growth factor genes. Signal pathways linked between L-PHP and EGF receptor phosphorylation suggest that L-PHP may be an important factor for adult β - cell regeneration, which could involve adult stem cell differentiation. These effects suggest that L-PHP may benefit pancreatic β cells and diabetic therapy in clinic.

Keywords: Diabetes, neural tripeptide amide.

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Article Details

Year: 2013
Published on: 30 June, 2013
Page: [8 - 13]
Pages: 6
DOI: 10.2174/1874609811306010002

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