Cancer is a worldwide leading cause of death. Multiple genetic mutations or environmental influences lead to
the change of cellular functions that result in malignant transformation. Therapeutic approaches, such as surgery,
chemotherapy and radiotherapy have harmful side effects due to their inability to specifically target particular tumors.
Each therapeutic strategy is aimed to affect the target tumor cells with minimum toxic effects on the function of the
normal cells. Specific targeted therapy offers the hope of improving the treatment of cancer resistant to conventional
therapy. A better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of cancer has contributed to the development of specific
novel drugs, including monoclonal antibodies, small molecule inhibitors, mimetic, antisense and small interference RNA.
The use of cancer vaccines for the specific treatment of cancer has recently increased, as they are able to generate an
active tumor-specific immune response. However, the treatment of cancer with specific peptides/proteins, genes, and short
interfering RNA (siRNA) is very promising, using cell penetrating peptides for their delivery into the cells. These
compounds act on specific targets that are believed to contribute to the development and progression of cancers and the
resistance of tumors to conventional therapies. Delivered individually or in combination with chemo- and/or radiotherapy,
such novel drugs have produced significant responses in certain types of tumors. This review describes these different
strategies which provide some insight into the future direction of the eradication of cancer cells altogether.