Influenza is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in young children. It is associated with high annual
attack rates as well as being responsible for frequent outpatient visits and hospitalisations. Children aged <2 years are at
the highest risk for serious illness or death during the influenza season. The neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir has been
proven to reduce the duration and severity of illness when treatment is commenced within 48 hours of symptom onset.
The H1N1 pandemic of 2009 prompted temporary emergency authorisation of oseltamivir use in infants aged <1 year in
the USA. In December 2012, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reinstated approval of oseltamivir to treat children
younger than 1 year old including neonates who have shown symptoms of influenza for less than 48 hours. Current data
on the use of oseltamivir in neonates and infants are limited. In this review, we evaluated accumulated data on oseltamivir
use in newborns, infants and young children with a special focus on pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety.
Keywords: Children, infants, neonates, oseltamivir, pharmacokinetics, safety.
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