In 1996, the US-based biotechnology company Myriad Genetics began offering genetic diagnostic tests for
mutations in the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, which are linked to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. Since that time,
Myriad has been a forerunner in the field of personalized medicine through the use of effective commercialization
strategies which have been emulated by other commercial biotechnology companies. Myriad’s strategies include patent
acquisition and active enforcement, direct-to-consumer advertising, diversification, and trade secrets. These business
models have raised substantial ethical controversy and criticism, often related to the company’s focus on market
dominance and the potential conflict between private sector profitability and the promotion of public health. However,
these strategies have enabled Myriad to survive the economic challenges that have affected the biotechnology sector and
to become financially successful in the field of personalized medicine. Our critical assessment of the legal, economic and
ethical aspects of Myriad’s practices over this period allows the identification of the company’s more effective business
models. It also discusses of the consequences of implementing economically viable models without first carrying out
broader reflection on the socio-cultural, ethical and political contexts in which they would apply.
Keywords: BRCA genes, breast and ovarian cancer, commercialization, direct-to-consumer advertising, gene patents, genetic
diagnostic tests, myriad genetics, trade secrets.
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