Carapa guianensis Aublet (Meliaceae), also known as andiroba, is used in popular medicine in Brazil and other countries encompassing
the Amazon rainforest. Virtually all parts of the andiroba tree are utilized, including the seed’s oil, which is employed to treat
inflammation and infections. The medicinal properties of C. guianensis have been attributed to the presence of limonoids, which are
tetranortriterpenoids. We have previously demonstrated that the oil obtained from C. guianensis seeds contains different tetranortriterpenoids,
including 6α-acetoxygedunin, 7-deacetoxy-7-oxogedunin, andirobin, gedunin and methyl-angolensate. The seeds oil and this fraction
of tetranortriterpenoids present marked anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties, by inhibiting edema formation in different experimental
models in rodents, via the impairment of signaling pathways triggered by histamine, bradykinin and platelet-activating factor.
Tetranortriterpenoids also impaired the production of inflammatory mediators that trigger leukocyte infiltration into the inflammatory
site, including the eosinophilotactic mediators interleukin (IL)-5 and CCL11/eotaxin, as well as the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis
factor (TNF)-α and IL-1β. This phenomenon seems to depend on the inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) activation. We have further
demonstrated that each one of the five tetranortriterpenoids listed above presented inhibitory effects on the activation of different cell
populations, including mast cells, eosinophils and T lymphocytes, through which they impaired allergy and inflammation. This review
will discuss the therapeutic effects of C. guianensis oil and its compounds, focusing on the scientific evidences that support its traditional
use in inflammatory conditions and its anti-allergic properties.