Microfluidic systems provide powerful tools for controlling the in vitro cellular microenvironment which best
mimick the in vivo biological matrix. Such devices have been applied to both temporal and spatial manipulation of cell
growth and stimuli by micro-scaled channels, patterns, and fluidic systems, creating new opportunities for biologists to
study cellular behaviors under different physical and chemical conditions. In this paper, we review the concepts and
strategies in designing microfluidic devices for culturing, manipulating, and stimulating cells under well-established microenvironments.
We further discuss their various biological applications and potential integrations with other observation-