During the last two decades, the studies on ubiquitination in regulating transcription factor NF-κB activation have elucidated
the expanding role of ubiquitination in modulating cellular events by non-proteolytic mechanisms, as well as by proteasomal degradation.
The significance of ubiquitination has also been recognized in regulating gene transcription, epigenetic modifications, kinase activation,
DNA repair and subcellular translocation. This progress has been translated into novel strategies for developing anti-cancer therapeutics,
exemplified by the success of the first FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor drug Bortezomib. Here we discuss the current understanding
of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and how it is involved in regulating NF-κB signaling pathways in response to a variety of stimuli. We
also focus on the recent progress of anti-cancer drug development targeting various steps of ubiquitination process, and the potential of
these drugs in cancer treatment as related to their impact on NF-κB activation.