Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other chronic inflammatory diseases are always the major therapeutic challenges.
Recent research efforts provided new insights into the molecular basis of these diseases and new opportunities for
developing improved anti-inflammatory drugs. The p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase plays a central role in the
regulation of the biosynthesis and release of several proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha
(TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). Hence, inhibition of the p38 MAP kinase is regarded as a promising therapeutic
strategy for controlling inflammatory diseases. A diverse range of p38α MAP kinase inhibitors have been developed as
potential anti-inflammatory agents, and some of them have entered the phase II clinical trials. The imidazole derivatives
are known as competitive inhibitors at the ATP binding site of the p38α MAP kinase. Modifications on the imidazole
scaffold have led to a large amount of potent p38α MAP kinase inhibitors. This review will summarize the developments
of small molecule p38α MAP kinase inhibitors based on the imidazole core scaffolds in recent 10 years. Variations at the
N1, C2, C4 and C5 positions of imidazole were introduced, and the structure-activity relationships of these imidazole
inhibitors were also discussed.
Keywords: Anti-inflammatory, p38α MAP kinase, p38α MAP kinase inhibitors, rheumatoid arthritis, tetrasubstituted imidazoles, thioimidazoles, trisubstituted imidazoles
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