Dyslipidemia, and especially atherogenic dyslipidemia, a combination of small low-density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-C),
decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and increased triglyceride (TG) concentrations, represents a major cardiovascular
(CV) risk factor. Nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism;
PPAR ligands are used to treat dyslipidemias.
Fibrates have a major impact on TG metabolism as well as on modulating LDL size and subclasses. Fibrates target atherogenic dyslipidemia
by increasing plasma HDL-C concentrations and decreasing small dense LDL (sdLDL) particles and TGs, thus contributing to
dyslipidemia management, particularly in patients with diabetes (DM) or the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Furthermore, fibrates exert
beneficial effects on adipokines, inflammation and oxidative stress as well as neuroprotective properties. However, further studies are
needed to define the role of fibrates in the prevention of CV events. We review the effects of fibrates on atherogenic dyslipidemia and
CV risk reduction.