Since attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) presents high prevalence among children, science has
been researching alternative forms of treatment that do not involve medication. Objective: To evaluate the effects of
polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Methods: We reviewed the articles
published between 1980 and 2012 indexed in the databases PubMed, APA psychNET, Scopus and Web of Knowledge.
Results: Initially 231 articles were selected, out of which 12 met the inclusion criteria. The articles selected reported a
modest cognitive and behavioral improvement of the patients after treatment with low doses of PUFAs. Those results
might be associated with the evaluation methodology, the doses of PUFAs administered or the duration of treatment.
Keywords: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, behavior, children, cognition, dietary supplements and polyunsaturated
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