The Renin-Angiotensin System: New Insight into Old Therapies

Author(s): M. Ramirez-Sanchez, I. Prieto, R. Wangensteen, I. Banegas, A. B. Segarra, A. B. Villarejo, F. Vives, J. Cobo, M. de Gasparo

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 20 , Issue 10 , 2013

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Although the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is already an old acquaintance, there are often exciting discoveries that improve our knowledge of it and open new therapeutic possibilities. Moreover, well-established drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), or beta-blockers, show that their mechanism of action may be the result of parallel pathways other than the ones initially established. A detailed analysis of the RAS can be carried out in part through the study of the enzymes, named angiotensinases, involved in its cascade, whose activity is a reflection of the functionality of their peptide substrates. The study of these enzymes offers the possibility of controlling the effects of angiotensins through various pharmacological manipulations. For example, angiotensinase inhibitors or activators are being used or have been proposed as antihypertensive agents. They have also been suggested as analgesic and antidepressant drugs or targets for drug development against different pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy or ischemia. On the other hand, the analysis of brain asymmetry has revealed surprising results about the laterality of central and peripheral components of the RAS. Such studies indicate that the neurovisceral integration, already proposed by Claude Bernard (1867) should also be analyzed from a bilateral perspective. In this review, the RAS and the role of various angiotensinases implicated in the cascade are revisited. Therapeutic strategies involving some components of the RAS with an unusual vision resulting from a bilateral perspective added to their study are discussed.

Keywords: Renin-angiotensin system, angiotensinases, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, brain asymmetry

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Article Details

Year: 2013
Page: [1313 - 1322]
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.2174/0929867311320100008
Price: $65

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