Due to the nature of articular cartilage of being poorly vascularized the capabilities of self repair are limited.
Mesenchymal stem cells transplantation is a modern technique which has been developed after the high success rates obtained
by microfracturing and drilling techniques which promote the release of growth factors and the infiltration of bone
marrow derived cells in the lesion. In order to increase the concentration of bone marrow derived cells appropriate devices,
the scaffolds, are necessary. These three dimensional constructs mimic the physiological ambient of chondrogenesis.
The race for new scaffold materials, which will show high biocompatibility to prevent inflammatory response, high
cellular adhesion properties with three dimensional architecture, high bioactivity to deliver growth factor appropriately
and possibly high biodegrability has just begun. New studies will concentrate on the role, on the interaction and on the
temporal sequence of growth factors to improve ostheocondral differentiation, but the necessity to increase the number of
clinical studies with more patients and longer follow ups seems mandatory. The aim of this review is to update and summarise
the evidence-based knowledge of treatment of talus chondral defect with new tissue engineering techniques.