Over the two past decades, a significant number of studies have observed animal growth traits to examine animal
genetic mechanisms due to their ease of measurement and high heritability. Chicken which has a significant impact
on fundamental biology is a major source of protein worldwide, making it an ideal model for examining animal growth
trait development. The genetic mechanisms of chicken growth traits have been studied using quantitative trait loci mapping
through genome-scan and candidate gene approaches, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), comparative genomic
strategies, microRNA (miRNA) regulation of growth development analysis, and epigenomic analysis. This review
focuses on chicken GWAS and miRNA regulation of growth traits. Several recently published GWAS reports showed
that most genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms are located on chromosomes 1 and 4 in chickens.
Chicken growth, particularly skeletal muscle growth and development, is greatly regulated by miRNA. Using dwarf and
normal chickens, let-7b was found to be involved in determining chicken dwarf phenotypes by regulating growth hormone
receptor gene expression.