The purpose of this study was to investigate how a viral infection affecting the epithelial cells could be influenced by the presence
of the opportunistic Staphylococcus aureus soluble mediators. The viral antigens presence, apoptosis and cytokine profiles of HeLa
cells infected with HSV-1 and pre-/postreated with different bacterial soluble fractions were evaluated. Soluble bacterial molecules could
modulate HeLa cells functions to prevent the development of viral infection, but later stages of viral infection are less affected by bacterial
soluble mediators. The in vitro cooperative action of HSV-1 and of S. aureus soluble fractions modulated the immune response of the
infected HeLa cells, mainly by triggering the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.