Low invasive therapies of cancer are directed toward the methods that target selectively on carcinoma cells. Photodynamic
therapy (PDT) is a therapeutic modality in which combination of a photosensitizer, light, and oxygen renders reactive oxygen species
(ROS) which cause damage to a tumor tissue. Each of these factors is not toxic in itself and the effect of therapy results from high uptake
of a photosensitizer by carcinoma cells and directed tumor irradiation by light. Realization of the therapy depends on efficient transport
of the photosensitizer across the membrane and intracellular accumulation of the drug. Depending on the treatment conditions and the uptake
mechanism, sensitizers can potentially reach different intracellular concentrations and different cellular effects can be triggered.
Transport efficacy can be significantly augmented by applying electric pulses to plasma membrane, which opens transient non-selective
hydrophilic nanopores as additional pathways across lipid membranes. Electroporation (EP) has been utilized to facilitate drug uptake in
electrochemotherapy (ECT) and has been tested in combination with PDT. In the review, we described effects of PDT and electrophotodynamic
therapy (EPDT) on carcinoma and healthy cells, studied in vitro and vivo. The comparison of different drugs has been applied
to tests considering the enhancement of their cytotoxicity, selectivity, and additional effects caused by electroporation.
Keywords: Photodynamic therapy, electrochemotherapy, electroporation, cancer, PDT, ROS, Photosensitizer, EPDT, EP, Cytotoxicity, ECT
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Published on: 12 February, 2013
Page: [309 - 318]