Maternal antenatal therapy with glucocorticoids (GC) is routinely used to prevent lung immaturity. The potential harmful effects
on other organs, including in particular the central nervous system (CNS), are still controversial.
In the present review we aimed to investigate: i) the beneficial and detrimental effects of antenatal GC treatment in both human and animal
models; ii) the potential usefulness of biochemical markers such as calcium binding proteins (S100B, synaptophysin) and cytoskeletal
protein of neurons and dendrites (MAP2) in the perinatal period, and iii) whether the assessment of brain markers in different biological
fluids could constitute a promising tool for the monitoring of CNS function and/or developmental in fetuses and newborns whose
mothers assumed GC antenatally.
Keywords: Cardiovascular, CNS, glucocorticoids, MAP2, prematurity, S100B, Synaptophysin, Central Nervous System, Maternal antenatal therapy, CVS, SP-A, cardiomyocytes, Dexamethasone, GR, S100B Protein
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