A Surgical Opinion on Hyperalgesia/Nociception, Inflammatory/Neurogenic Pain and Anti-inflammatory Responses and Drug Interventions Revisited: Current Breakthroughs and Views

Author(s): John J. Haddad

Journal Name: Current Immunology Reviews (Discontinued)

Volume 8 , Issue 4 , 2012


All sensory modalities are essentially important, but pain serves a protective function and is indispensable for survival, and, technically, pain is considered one of the most common symptoms of injuries and related diseases. Inflammatory cells and inflammatory mediators are crucially involved in the propensity, genesis, persistence and severity of pain, commonly known as nociception or hyperalgesia, following trauma, infection, or nerve injury. When it pins down to the essential understanding of pain/hyperalgesia pathways and their intricate interactions with myriad probabilities of milieu of inflammatory cytokines and related molecules, the amicable concept of specificity and complexity remains a major dilemma. Various hyperalgesic models have been established to investigate this intricate relationship between pain perception and inflammatory responses. Illness-induced hyperalgesia, for instance, is one of the most common aspects of pain related-inflammation and therapeutic approach to this pain should aim at interfering with various mediators of the inflammatory reactions, including neuropeptides, eicosanoids and cytokines. In this surgical synopsis, a trajectory of neurochemical events and cascades are delineated and unraveled in terms of the connection that has ostensibly evolved for hyperalgesia-inflammatory responses. The unprecedented intricacy of pain-inflammatory relationship and putative pathways bears surmountable clinical and physiological relevance.

Keywords: Cytokines, endotoxin, hyperalgesia, inflammation, neurochemistry, neurogenic, nociception, pain

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Article Details

Year: 2012
Published on: 06 January, 2013
Page: [275 - 286]
Pages: 12
DOI: 10.2174/1573395511208040003
Price: $65

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