Many compounds can interact with DNA leading to changes of DNA structure as point mutation and bases
excision, which could trigger some metabolic failures, which leads to the changes in DNA structure resulting in cancer.
Oxidation of nucleic acid bases belongs to the one of the mostly occurred type of DNA damaging leading to the above
mentioned phenomena. The investigation of processes of DNA oxidation damage is topical and electrochemical methods
include a versatile and sensitive tool for these purposes. 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is the most widely accepted
marker of DNA damage. Oxidative damage to DNA by free radicals and exposure to ionizing radiation generate several
other products within the double helix besides mentioned oxidation products of nucleic acid bases. The basic
electrochemical behaviour of nucleic acids bases on various types of carbon electrodes is reviewed. Further, we address
our attention on description of oxidation mechanisms and on detection of the most important products of nucleic bases
oxidation. The miniaturization of detector coupled with some microfluidic devices is suggested and discussed.
The main aim of this review is to report the advantages and features of the electrochemical detection of guanine oxidation
product as 8-OHdG and other similarly produced molecules as markers for DNA damage.
Keywords: Miniaturization, nucleic acid bases, oxidation damage of DNA, voltammetry.
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