NADPH oxidase (Nox) is a unique, multi-protein, electron transport system that produces large amounts of
superoxide via the reduction of molecular oxygen. Nox-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be involved
in a variety of physiological processes, including host defense and signal transduction. However, over the past decade, the
involvement of (Nox)-dependent oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative diseases has been
increasingly recognized. ROS produced by Nox proteins contribute to neurodegenerative diseases through distinct
mechanisms, such as oxidation of DNA, proteins, lipids, amino acids and metals, in addition to activation of redoxsensitive
signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss the recent literature on Nox involvement in neurodegeneration,
focusing on Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases.