The approval of sipuleucel-T for the treatment of patients with metastatic asymptomatic and minimally symptomatic
castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has validated immunotherapy, in general, as a valid approach for this
disease. Multiple novel immune based approaches including adenoviral-based vector delivering targeted antigen, DNAbased
vaccination, listeria-based vaccination, pox-viral based approach, immune checkpoint blockade and radioimmunoconjugates
appear promising. In concert with the development of new immunotherapeutics, the development of optimal
intermediate endpoints for clinical efficacy, measures of an optimal immune response and biomarkers predictive for benefit
are warranted. We briefly review emerging immunotherapeutic approaches to treat patients with CRPC.