Hydrogen Peroxide in Biocatalysis. A Dangerous Liaison

Author(s): Karel Hernandez, Angel Berenguer-Murcia, Rafael C. Rodrigues, Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente

Journal Name: Current Organic Chemistry

Volume 16 , Issue 22 , 2012

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Hydrogen peroxide is a substrate or side-product in many enzyme-catalyzed reactions. For example, it is a side-product of oxidases, resulting from the re-oxidation of FAD with molecular oxygen, and it is a substrate for peroxidases and other enzymes. However, hydrogen peroxide is able to chemically modify the peptide core of the enzymes it interacts with, and also to produce the oxidation of some cofactors and prostetic groups (e.g., the hemo group). Thus, the development of strategies that may permit to increase the stability of enzymes in the presence of this deleterious reagent is an interesting target. This enhancement in enzyme stability has been attempted following almost all available strategies: site-directed mutagenesis (eliminating the most reactive moieties), medium engineering (using stabilizers), immobilization and chemical modification (trying to generate hydrophobic environments surrounding the enzyme, to confer higher rigidity to the protein or to generate oxidation-resistant groups), or the use of systems capable of decomposing hydrogen peroxide under very mild conditions. If hydrogen peroxide is just a side-product, its immediate removal has been reported to be the best solution. In some cases, when hydrogen peroxide is the substrate and its decomposition is not a sensible solution, researchers coupled one enzyme generating hydrogen peroxide “in situ” to the target enzyme resulting in a continuous supply of this reagent at low concentrations thus preventing enzyme inactivation.

This review will focus on the general role of hydrogen peroxide in biocatalysis, the main mechanisms of enzyme inactivation produced by this reactive and the different strategies used to prevent enzyme inactivation caused by this “dangerous liaison”.

Keywords: Enzyme inactivation by oxidation, genetic modification, immobilization, chemical modification, partition effect, catalase, oxidase, lipase

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Article Details

Year: 2012
Page: [2652 - 2672]
Pages: 21
DOI: 10.2174/138527212804004526
Price: $58

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