Penicillium marneffei, an endemic fungus in Southeast Asia and southern China, is the cause of opportunistic
infection in HIV-infected patients who may present with respiratory symptoms, and abnormal chest radiographs. In this
review, reports of Penicillium marneffei respiratory infections spanning the last 15 years will be summarized. This will
include discussions on etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnoses, treatment and prognosis. Correct
diagnosis and timely antifungal treatment should be helpful in reducing the high mortality rate associated with infection.