The cornerstone of treating patients with shock remains as it has for decades, intravenous fluids. Surprisingly, dosing intravenous
fluid during resuscitation of shock remains largely empirical. Recent data suggests that early aggressive resuscitation of critically ill
patients may limit and/or reverse tissue hypoxia, progression to organ failure and improve outcome. However, overzealous fluid resuscitation
has been associated with increased complications, increased length of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay and increased
mortality. This review focuses on methods to assess fluid responsiveness and the application of these methods for goal directed fluid therapy
in critically ill and peri-operative patients.