Molecular imaging technologies have undergone explosive growth during the past two decades, providing noninvasive
and quantitative imaging of biological and biochemical processes within intact living subject. Conventional anatomical
imaging techniques such as X-ray computed tomography (XCT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can offer
detailed anatomical structures but are weak in providing physiological information. Primary functional imaging modalities
including radionuclide imaging and optical imaging are able to offer high-sensitive molecular information but suffer from
poor spatial resolution. Improvements in overall imaging performance can be achieved by combining the strengths of different
imaging modalities. These combinations, such as radionuclide/XCT, radionuclide/MRI, optical/XCT, optical/MRI,
and optical/radionuclide, are expected to have a significant impact on disease detection, treatment planning, and drug development.
Here, the review summarizes the recent developments in multi-modality molecular imaging, and highlights
their applications in preclinical and clinical researches.