Fatty acids are known to serve as energetic substrates, key components of membrane lipids, and as substrates for the synthesis
of signaling molecules and complex lipids. They are also known to be ligands either of membrane receptors involved in cell signaling or
of nuclear receptors mediating gene regulation. Accumulation of fatty acids due to altered metabolism and/or unbalanced diet has been
described to be toxic for several tissues, especially liver. In numerous cell types, cell death, cytokine secretion and activation of inflammatory
processes appear to be a consequence of fatty acid accumulation. This review presents the different classes of fatty acids known
to trigger toxic effects and inflammation, the cellular and subcellular targets of these fatty acids in the context of non-alcoholic fatty liver
disease (NAFLD), and the mechanisms by which these effects are mediated.