Dysglycemia as a pre-stage of diabetes mellitus and abdominal obesity are closely interrelated at multiple levels
and by a whole array of complex mechanisms, many of which seem to have the potential of causing harm to large
blood vessels, in particular to coronary and peripheral vascular segments. Both conditions are associated with elevated
circulating concentrations of free fatty acids in conjunction with insulin resistance, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction,
disordered nitric oxide release, and endothelial dysfunction. Oscillating glucose levels seem to be associated
with the most of the injury burden to endothelial cells of large blood vessels and also generate some kind of metabolic
memory. In addition, the multiple effects of insulin also on the regulation of the vasculature are shifted towards vasoconstriction
and proliferation in the context of insulin resistance and the excessively high levels.