Chalcones are the principal precursors for the biosynthesis of flavonoids and isoflavonoids. A three carbon α,
β-unsaturated carbonyl system constitutes chalcones. Chalcones are the condensation products of aromatic aldehyde with
acetophenones in attendance of catalyst. They go through an assortment of chemical reactions and are found advantageous
in synthesis of pyrazoline, isoxazole and a variety of heterocyclic compounds. In synthesizing a range of therapeutic
compounds, chalcones impart key role. They have showed worth mentioning therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of
various diseases. Chalcone based derivatives have gained heed since they own simple structures, and diverse pharmacological
actions. A lot of methods and schemes have been reported for the synthesis of these compounds. Amongst all, Aldol
condensation and Claisen-Schmidt condensation still grasp high up position. Other distinguished techniques include
Suzuki reaction, Witting reaction, Friedel-Crafts acylation with cinnamoyl chloride, Photo-Fries rearrangement of phenyl
cinnamates etc. These inventive techniques utilize various catalysts and reagents including SOCl2 natural phosphate,
lithium nitrate, amino grafted zeolites, zinc oxide, water, Na2CO3, PEG400, silicasulfuric acid, ZrCl4 and ionic liquid etc.
The development of better techniques for the synthesis of α, β- unsaturated carbonyl compounds is still in high demand. In
brief, we have explained the methods and catalysts used in the synthesis of chalcones along with their biological activities
in a review form to provide information for the development of new-fangled processes targeting better yield, less reaction
time and least side effects with utmost pharmacological properties.