Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a clinicopathological disease characterized by oesophageal eosinophilia and gastrointestinal
symptoms. Currently, the optimal treatment regimens remain unclear. The pathogenesis of eosinophilic oesophagitis appears to involve
immune dysregulation, while acid reflux may have a secondary role; the mainstays in treatment are aimed principally at these dual processes.
While a trial of a PPI is worthwhile it is likely that PPI therapy is treating concurrent acid reflux rather than true eosinophilic oesophagitis.
Dietary elimination with elemental feed is safe but poorly tolerated. Swallowed topical steroids are the mainstay of commercially
available therapies. Both fluticasone and budesonide have been proven to be beneficial both symptomatically and in reducing oesophageal
eosinophil counts in the short and medium term. Basic studies have determined a role for IL-5 in oesophageal remodelling in
eosinophilic esophagitis. Initial clinical studies have shown single or multiple infusions of monoclonal antibody to IL-5 to be well tolerated
and to cause a long-term decrease in both peripheral and sputum eosinophil count in these eosinophil driven conditions. At present,
swallowed corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment for patients with eosinophilic oesophagitis in patients failing PPI therapy. Studies
have been heterogenous in their diagnostic criteria for eosinophilic oesophagitis and in the definition of response to therapy, making
comparison of results difficult.
Keywords: Eosinophilic oesophagitis, budesonide, fluticasone, IL-5
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Published on: 03 October, 2012
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