The hydrophobic character of most drug molecules and their potential for degradation under the hostile environment of the
gastrointestinal tract (GIT) constitutes the main obstacle in the development of a successful oral drug delivery system, since these are related
to limitations of bioavailability and absorption processes. However, according to the advantages of the oral route, alternative ways
of drug administration in the oral cavity should be considered. In this context, it is essential to have a systematic knowledge of the GIT
and the oral cavity components, for a better understanding of the processes taking place during the oral administration of drugs. This review
gives an overview of those anatomical and physiological features and elucidates about the current approaches employed to enhance
the bioavailability of oral poorly water-soluble drugs. Strategies including the uses of lipid-based nanocarriers, such as nanoemulsions,
liposomes and lipid nanoparticles are discussed, considering their ability to improve solubility, dissolution kinetics, absorption and, consequently,
biopharmaceutical properties. Some toxicological concerns are also highlighted.
Keywords: Gastrointestinal tract, lipid-based nanocarriers, liposomes, lipid nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, nanoemulsions, oral administration, oral cavity administration, peroral administration, poorly water-soluble drugs, toxicity.
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Published on: 23 September, 2012
Page: [4495 - 4510]